An Eco-Friendly Building Made of Straw
When Ridge decided it was time to renovate its Lytton Springs facility, Winemaker
and CEO Paul Draper set the ambitious goal of creating a winery that would utilize
as many environmentally friendly techniques as possible. From the beginning, energy
conservation and environmentally sensitive building materials were key elements of
the plan. Underground caves, a very traditional and efficient way of storing wine,
were ruled out due to the underground “springs” at Lytton Springs.
After Paul visited a small winery constructed of straw bales, he knew this would be
the right approach for Lytton Springs. The key decision made, a team was assembled to
design and build this unique structure. Along the way, many environmentally friendly
ideas were incorporated into the project to complement the basic straw bale design.
During the design process, we realized this was going to be the largest commercial
straw bale building (so far) in the United States. In order to satisfy building codes
in earthquake-prone California, the straw bales role could not be structural; rather,
they would provide a highly insulating “infill” for the post-and beam structure. The
bales themselves are rice straw from California’s Central Valley. Rice straw is high
in silica, making it indigestible and very slow to decompose. Rice farmers traditionally
burned the straw after each harvest. However, because of air pollution concerns, this
practice is now forbidden. Using the straw as a building material not only saves energy,
it saves the air.
All of the exterior walls and many of the interior walls of the building are finished
with a natural earthen plaster, mixed on-site using clay soil from our surrounding vineyards.
Chopped rice straw was added for strength, and can be seen when the plaster is examined closely.
The straw bales were covered with welded wire metal “lath”, then the earthen plaster was applied
in multiple coats and hand finished. The resulting wall can “breathe,” allowing any moisture that
might accumulate in the straw to transpire.
Recycled Lumber was used throughout the project. Framing and construction-grade wood was salvaged
when possible from the old facility and other outdated structures on Ridge’s property. All of the
building’s oak flooring and the oak siding and trim used in the tasting room is recycled barn wood.
The oak facing on the tasting bar is made of old tank staves from decommissioned fermentation tanks
once used at the Lytton Springs winery.
Passive Solar Design & Night Air Cooling
Many aspects of the building design were formulated to complement the strong thermal properties of
the straw bales. Large overhangs shade the building in summer, and high ceilings allow warmer air to
rise above the people and the wine. At night during the summer, louvers around the base of the building
open to let in cool air, and louvers in the cupola on the roof open allowing warm air to escape. These
louvers are controlled by a computer system that continuously monitors outside and inside air temperatures.
As a result, no traditional air conditioning is used except as a back-up in the barrel storage room.